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  • 藏品赏析---波曲紋獸耳銅壺

    发布时间: 2021-02-19 21:59首页:主页 > 国内 > 阅读()

    西周晚期指厲王、共和、宣王、幽王等100多年時間,此期間青銅器的種類和形式减少,造型和紋飾都比較簡樸實用,且趨於定型化、程式化。經過西周中期新舊交替和轉變的過程,西周晚期的青銅器無論從形制上還是從紋飾上都是中期的延續,但是已經沒有中期那樣交錯複雜的情形了。這時出現少量新的器形,但整體的變化不大。

    ThelateWesternZhouDynastyreferstotheperiodofmorethan100years,suchaskingLi,Gonghe,KingXuanandKingYouwang.Duringthisperiod,thetypesandformsofbronzesdecreased,andtheshapesandpatternsweresimpleandpractical,andtendedtobestereotypedandstylized.ThroughtheprocessofthealternationandtransformationbetweentheoldandthenewinthemiddleoftheWesternZhouDynasty,thebronzesinthelateWesternZhouDynastywerethecontinuationofthemiddleperiodintermsofshapeanddecoration,buttherewasnosuchcomplicatedsituationasthatinthemiddleperiodoftheWesternZhouDynasty.Atthistime,asmallnumberofnewshapesappeared,buttheoverallchangewasnotsignificant.

    1造型特徵

    從總體上來看,西周晚期的青銅禮器,在形制上沒有突出的變化,品種也很少,基本上處於停滯的狀態,但仍然有一些小的改變。

    1modelingfeatures

    Onthewhole,thebronzeritualvesselsinthelateWesternZhouDynastyhadnoprominentchangesinshapeandform,andtherewerefewvarieties.Basically,theywereinastagnantstate,buttherewerestillsomesmallchanges.

    西周晚期的鼎,流行樣式有兩種:一種是沿用中期的垂腹鼎,如禹鼎、史頌鼎等,其形制如同大、小克鼎;另一種是盂鼎。這兩種鼎都是獸蹄鼎足。盂鼎在這一時期內發展得較快,是具有典型意義的器形。鼎腹還可分為深、中等、淺三類。

    TherearetwopopularstylesofDinginthelateWesternZhouDynasty:oneisthehangingbellytripodusedinthemiddleperiod,suchasYuDingandShiSongDing.ItsshapeislikebigandsmallKeDing;theotherisYuDing.Thesetwokindsoftripodsarebothanimalhooves.Duringthisperiod,YuDingdevelopedrapidlyandwasatypicalshape.Thebellyoftripodcanalsobedividedintodeep,mediumandshallowtypes.

    西周晚期的甗仍是圓體和方體兩種。前者的甑部較低且寬大,後者逐漸流行起來,如伯碩父甗、叔碩父甗等都是方甗。

    InthelateWesternZhouDynasty,therearestilltwokindsofGuan:roundandsquare.Thesteameroftheformerislowerandwider,whilethelatterisbecomingmoreandmorepopular.Forexample,BoShuoFuGuanandShuShuoFuFuGuanareallFangGuan.

    酒器中的壺仍如中期的長頸垂腹和方壺,方壺似乎有一定的發展,如頌壺、梁其壺壺蓋均為蓮瓣形,是西周晚期出現的新式樣,到春秋時代很流行。還有一類款足盉,足肥而短,小口有蓋而寬肩,有鏨可執,或自銘為鎣。

    Thepotsinthewinevesselsarestilllikethemid-termlongneckedpotandsquarepot.Thesquarepotseemstohaveacertaindevelopment.Forexample,thelidofSonghuandLiangqipotsarelotuspetalshaped,whichisanewstyleappearedinthelateWesternZhouDynastyandwasverypopularinthespringandAutumnperiod.Thereisalsoatypeoffootheat,fullfatandshort,smallmouthwithacoverandwideshoulder,achiselcanhold,orselfinscriptionforYing.

    2花紋與裝潢

    西周晚期的紋飾構圖簡潔而又疏朗,刻畫粗壯而有力,種類上較中期减少了一些,從藝術欣賞價值來說已經遠超過商末周初。最常見的是波曲紋、橫行“S”和“C”形的變形獸紋、鱗紋。有些重器素面不施加紋飾,但是器物的突出部分仍保持裝潢的具體形象,如簋耳、匜銴之類,這主要是因為主體的形象很難變形和做得抽象。這一時期的雷紋蛻化,鳥紋銷聲匿跡,立體動物附飾也不發達。此外還有弦紋、雙頭夔紋和蟠蛇紋等。龍體交疊的紋飾的出現僅限個別器物,如頌鼎的交龍紋。

    Patternanddecoration

    ThepatterncompositionofthelateWesternZhouDynastyisconciseandsparse,thedepictionisstrongandpowerful,andthetypesarereducedcomparedwiththemiddleperiod.Fromtheperspectiveofartappreciationvalue,ithasfarexceededthatofthelateShangDynastyandtheearlyZhouDynasty.Themostcommonarewavypattern,transverse"s"and"C"shapedeformedanimalpatternandscalepattern.Themainreasonisthatitisdifficulttotransformandabstracttheimageofthemainbody.Duringthisperiod,thethunderpatterndegenerated,thebirdpatterndisappeared,andthethree-dimensionalanimalaccessorieswerenotdeveloped.Inaddition,therearestringpatterns,doubleKuipatternsandflatsnakepatterns.Theappearanceofoverlappingdragonpatternsislimitedtoindividualobjects,suchasthedragonpatternofsongding.

    3銘文特徵

    本時期內有較多的長篇銘文,內容上多為格式化的廷禮册命。有關戰爭、土地獄訟等方面的內容較多見。宣王時出現了最長的西周金文毛公鼎銘,長達499字的銘文,記述了宣王對毛公的誥命。除此之外,本時期的銘文末尾多有套辭,“萬年無疆”之類的辭句較為盛行。本時期還有許多器銘屬於韻文,也是非常有特色的。這時的銘文佈局工整規範,橫成行,豎成列,在少數器銘拓本上可看到清楚的長方格,這表明當時在制範時採用了先畫格後按格作字的管道。本時期的字形特徵較明顯:一是普遍呈長方形,字形的大小相近;二是筆道絕大多數為細勁均勻的線條,僅個別字,如“天”字上一橫,“旦”字下一橫有呈圓點狀的,“丁”字仍多寫成圓點,即“玉箸體”。由於字形典雅,行列整齊,使得本時期的銘文總體上顯得莊重、肅穆。如上文所說的“玉箸體”實際上起源於西周中期末葉,但在本時期才盛行開來。如夷王時的史頌鼎銘文,夷王或厲王時期的大克鼎銘文等。

    3featuresofinscriptions

    Therearemanylonginscriptionsinthisperiod,andthecontentsaremostlyformattedimperialrites.Therearemanycontentsaboutwarandlandinquisition.DuringthereignofKingXuan,thelongestbronzeinscriptionoftheWesternZhouDynastyappeared,witha499characterinscription,recordingKingXuan'sedicttoDukeMao.Inaddition,attheendoftheinscriptionsinthisperiod,therearemanyphrases,suchas"eternalboundless"andsoon.Inthisperiod,manyinscriptionsonutensilsbelongtorhymes,whicharealsoverydistinctive.Thelayoutoftheinscriptionsatthistimewasneatandstandard,withhorizontallinesandverticalcolumns.Clearrectangularlatticescanbeseeninafewrubbingsofutensils.Thisshowsthatthepipeofdrawingthegridfirstandthenmakingcharactersaccordingtothegridwasadoptedinmakingthemodel.Thecharactersofthecharactersinthisperiodarequiteobvious:first,theyaregenerallyrectangularinsize;second,mostofthestrokesarethinanduniformlines,withonlyindividualcharacters.Forexample,therearedotsonthetopof"Tian"character,"dotlike"dot"atthebottomof"Dan",and"Ding"isstillwrittenasdots,i.e."Yutiao".Duetotheelegantshapeandneatranks,theinscriptionsofthisperiodaregenerallysolemnandsolemn.Asmentionedabove,"yuzhuti"actuallyoriginatedinthelateWesternZhouDynasty,butitwasonlyinthisperiodthatitbecamepopular.Forexample,theinscriptionsofShiSongDingandDaKeDingintheperiodofYiWangorLiWang.

    此壺形體高大穩健,上體修長,下腹豐滿,長頸,垂腹,圈足外侈,獸首銜環耳,蓋頂作圈足形。通體三層花紋,以雷紋填地,壺體用兩組弦紋分割成上中下三段,每段皆飾波曲紋,紋飾間填以三角、口、眉等形。蓋頂飾團鳳紋。蓋緣及圈足飾獸體捲曲紋,花紋粗獷豪放,流暢自如,表現出高古廟堂重器的肅穆與莊嚴。

    Thepotistallandstable,withalongupperbody,afulllowerabdomen,alongneckandadroopingbelly.Ithasaringfootonitsheadandearsonitshead,andaringonitstop.Thewholebodyhasthreelayersofpatterns,andthegroundisfilledwiththunderpatterns.Thepotbodyisdividedintoupper,middleandlowersectionsbytwogroupsofstringpatterns.Eachsectionisdecoratedwithwavypatterns,andthepatternsarefilledwithtriangle,mouthandeyebrow.Thecrownisdecoratedwithphoenixpattern.Theanimalbodycurlpatternonthecoveredgeandcirclefootisroughandbold,smoothandfree,whichshowsthesolemnityandsolemnityofhighancienttemples.

    波曲紋,舊稱環帶紋,是寬闊的帶狀體軀上下大幅度的彎曲,在波曲的中腰常有一獸目或近似獸頭形的突出物,而在波峰的中間填以兩頭龍紋、鳥紋、鱗片等,此紋飾應是從商代和西周早期的龍紋或獸紋抽象變化而來。在傳世的西周青銅器如著名的大克鼎、頌壺等器物中亦可見到此類紋飾。

    Wavypattern,formerlyknownasgirdlepattern,isawidebandedbodywithalargeamountofbendingupanddown.Inthemiddleofthewavecurve,thereisusuallyaprotrusionoftheorderofbeastsorsimilaranimalheadshape,andthemiddleofthewavecrestisfilledwithdragonpatterns,birdpatterns,scales,etc.,whichshouldbeabstractlychangedfromthedragonpatternsoranimalpatternsoftheShangDynastyandtheearlyWesternZhouDynasty.SuchpatternscanalsobeseeninthebronzewaresoftheWesternZhouDynasty,suchasthefamousDaketripodandSonghu.

    此壺通高54釐米,口徑17.6釐米,腹徑32釐米,圈足徑26.6釐米,採用範鑄法合範澆鑄而成,因製作精細,器體各部位範線多已打磨平整,但從獸耳為對稱的器物中間部位從上到下有縱向範線痕迹,貫通花紋,是鑒定早期青銅器的一個重要證據。

    Thepotis54cminheight,17.6cmindiameter,32cminbellydiameterand26.6cmincirclefootdiameter.Itwascastwithmouldcastingmethod.Duetoitsfineproduction,mostofthelinesinthepartsofthebodyhavebeenpolishedandleveled.However,therearelongitudinalmarksoflinesfromtoptobottominthemiddlepartoftheware,whichissymmetricaltotheearsofanimals.Itisanimportantevidencetoidentifyearlybronzes.

    此壺的形制、紋飾,與陝西周原西周青銅器窖藏出土、現藏陝西省周原博物館的著名青銅器三年壺非常相似,三年壺器身鑄有銘文可考,年代定為西周中期,是西周貴族為感謝天子的賞賜而鑄造的祭祀亡祖的禮器。此件波曲紋雙耳蓋壺,其年代和功用應與周原出土的青銅壺類似,是西周時期上層貴族鑄造的一件重要禮器。

    TheshapeanddecorationofthispotareverysimilartothefamousbronzewarethreeyearpotunearthedfromtheWesternZhouDynastybronzehoardinShaanxiProvinceandnowintheZhouyuanMuseumofShaanxiProvince.Thereareinscriptionsonthebodyofthethree-yearpot,whichisdatedtothemiddleoftheWesternZhouDynasty.ItisasacrificialvesselmadebythenobilityoftheWesternZhouDynastytothanktheemperorforhisreward.TheageandfunctionofthisteapotwithwavypatternanddoubleearcapshouldbesimilartothebronzepotunearthedinZhouyuan.ItisanimportantritualvesselcastbytheupperclassaristocratsintheWesternZhouDynasty.

    “國之大事,在祀與戎”,商周時期的青銅禮器,不僅具有審美價值,更是做為天子所統率的國家舉行祭祀與攻伐前後各種儀式的重要道具,呈現出代表宗教權威與政治統治合一的“獰麗之美”,承載著非比尋常的歷史文化意義。此壺為熟坑皮殼,為日本出光美術館舊藏。出光美術館是日本私人企業創立的一家世界著名美術館,於昭和四十年(1966年)開館,其收藏的中國古董品位之高,質量之精,全球矚目。

    "Thegreateventofthestateliesintheworshipandthemilitaryservice".ThebronzesacrificialvesselsintheShangandZhoudynastiesnotonlyhaveaestheticvalue,butalsoareimportantpropsforvariousritualsbeforeandafterthesacrificialritesandinvasionsunderthecommandoftheemperor,showingthe"beautyofferocity"representingtheunityofreligiousauthorityandpoliticalrule,andbearinganextraordinaryhistoricalandculturalsignificance.Thispotistheshellofacookedpit,whichisanoldcollectionofJapan'sChuguangArtMuseum.Chuguangartmuseumisaworld-famousartmuseumfoundedbyJapaneseprivateenterprises.Itopenedin1966inZhaohe's40thyear.ItscollectionofChineseantiqueshasattractedworldwideattentionduetoitshighqualityandhighquality.

    特别声明:文章内容仅供参考,不造成任何投资建议。投资者据此操作,风险自担。

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